CARBOHYDRATES

Carbohydrates are broken down into three major groups: sugars, starches, and fibers.

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A) SUGARS

Sugar is a sweet crystalline substance obtained from various plants, especially sugar cane and sugar beet, consisting essentially of sucrose, and used as a sweetener in food and drink.

Sugars have long been used for enhancing the flavor and texture of food. Moreover, added sugars are basically a mixture of simple sugars such as glucose and fructose.

B) STARCHES

Starches, a combination of simple sugar molecules, which are the most common type of carbohydrates.

They are often found in cereals, vegetables, and fruit, with major contributions from flour, potatoes, and legumes (beans, peas).

C) FIBERS

Fibers are another group of carbs that can not be broken down and usually found in cellulose of plant-based foods such as grains, fruit, vegetables, nuts, and legumes.

Indeed, fibers are not an effective source of energy to the body, instead they function our metabolism and digestive system.

A) SUGARS

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1.SUCROSE (TABLE SUGAR)

Most common type of sugar which is an integration of 50%glucose and 50% fructose.

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2.HIGH-FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP (HFCS)

Made from corn starches and combine with glucose and fructose.

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3. AGAVE NECTAR

Agave nectar, or agave syrup, is  produced from the agave plant with 70–90% fructose, and 10–30% glucose.

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4.OTHER SUGARS WITH GLUCOSE AND FRUCTOSE

  • Beet sugar

  • Blackstrap molasses

  • Brown sugar

  • Buttered syrup

  • Cane juice crystals

  • Cane sugar

  • Caramel

  • Carob syrup

  • Castor sugar

  • Coconut sugar

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...

  • Confectioner's sugar (powdered sugar)

  • Date sugar

  • Demerara sugar

  • Evaporated cane juice

  • Florida crystals

  • Fruit juice

  • Fruit juice concentrate

  • Golden sugar

  • Golden syrup

  • Grape sugar

  • Honey

  • Icing sugar

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...

  • Invert sugar

  • Maple syrup

  • Molasses

  • Muscovado sugar

  • Panela sugar

  • Raw sugar

  • Refiner's syrup

  • Sorghum syrup

  • Sucanat

  • Treacle sugar

  • Turbinado sugar

  • Yellow sugar

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5.SUGARS WITH GLUCOSE ONLY

  • Barley malt

  • Brown rice syrup

  • Corn syrup

  • Corn syrup solids

  • Dextrin

  • Dextrose

  • Diastatic malt

  • Ethyl maltol

  • Glucose

  • Glucose solids

  • Lactose

  • Malt syrup

  • Maltodextrin

  • Maltose

  • Rice syrup

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6.SUGARS WITH FRUCTOSE ONLY

  • Crystalline fructose

  • Fructose

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7.OTHER SUGARS

  • D-ribose

  • Galactose

B) STARCHES

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1.CORNMEAL (74%)
2. RICE KRISPIES CEREAL (72.1%)
3. PRETZELS (71.3%)

Food (ingredients) with a high level of starches

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4.FLOURS (68–70%)

  • Millet Flour (70%)

  • Sorghum Flour (68%)

  • White Flour (68%)

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5. SALTINE CRACKERS (67.8%)
6. OATS (57.9%)
7.WHOLE-WHEAT FLOUR (57.8%)
8. INSTANT NOODLES (56%)

Widely range in calories and nutrients dense

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9.BREAD PRODUCTS

  • English Muffins (44.4%)

  • Bagels (43.6%)

  • White Bread (40.8%)

  • Tortillas (40.2%)

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10.RICE (28.7%)

  • Arborio

  • Basmati

  •  Brown 

  • Jasmine

  • White

The content of starches will be lowered when rice is cooked from  63.6% to 28.7%

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11. PASTA (26%)

  • Angel Hair (w/ Light tomato, olive oil, cream, butter, seafood)

  • Elbow Macaroni (Cheese, butter)

  • Penne (hunky tomato, meat, vegetable, cream)

  • Rigatoni (Chunky meat or vegetable, cream, cheese)

  • Spaghetti ( Tomato, pesto, meat, seafood)

  • Ziti (Light tomato, olive oil, cream, cheese)

Due to a process of pasta gelatinizes in heat and water, the level of starches in pasta drops from 62.5% to 26%

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12.CORN

  • Sweet corn

  • Popcorn

  • Flour corn

  • Dent corn

  • Flint corn

  • Pod corn

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13. POTATOES

  • Russet Potatoes

  • Red Potatoes

  • White Potatoes

  • Yellow Potatoes

  • Purple Potatoes

  • Fingerling Potatoes

  • Petite Potatoes

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14.SHORTBREAD COOKIES (40.5%)

Widely range in calories and nutrients dense

C) FIBERS

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1. IN FRUITS

  • Guava (1 cup): 9 grams

  • Raspberries (1 cup): 8 grams

  • Blackberries (1 cup): 7 grams

  • Pear: almost 6 grams

  • Mango:  5 grams

  • Blueberries (1 cup): 4 grams

  • Orange & banana: 3 grams

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2. IN VEGETABLES

  • Avocado: 9 grams

  • Collard greens (1 cup cooked): 8 grams

  • Baked butternut squash cubes (1 cup): 7 grams

  • Artichoke hearts (1 cup): 5 grams

  • Cooked corn (1 cup): almost 4 grams

  • 10 asparagus spears: 3 grams.

  • Broccoli(1 cup): 3 grams

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3.IN NUTS

  • Almonds: 3.5 g of fiber per serving.

  • Peanuts: 3 

  • Pistachios: 3 g

  • Pecans: 2.5 g 

  • Walnuts: 2 g 

  • Cashews: 1 g