FOOD AND DISEASES

Diseases attributed by food often come from two major factors: food poisonings and poor diets. For the former one, disease-causing germs are prevalent in food which they could contaminate the products. The latter one is directly relied on individual's diet, so the unhealthier we eat, such as inadequate nutrients, the higher risk the consumer would develop food related diseases.

1. FOOD POISONING

Food poisoning or foodborne disease is often caused by infections from bacteria, viruses, and parasites with at least 250 foodborne diseases have been discovered. Still, some hazardous toxins and chemicals can potentially contaminate food too.

Common Diseases From Food Poisoning

  • Bacterial intoxication

  • Food borne infections

  • Other toxic infections

2. POOR DIET

Poor diet is fundamentally from incompleted or excessive diet of all essential nutrients group(s). Also, physical activities, like exercise, are another key to determine your health, since they can effectively reduce the chance of many diseases.

Common Diseases From Poor Diet

  • Obesity

  • Diabetes

  • Cardiovascular disease

1. FOOD POISONING - DISEASES

A type of food poiso

1. BACTERIAL INTOXICATIONS

A type of food poisoning that attributed by growths of bacteria in food and later form bacterial toxins, the harmful molecules that contaminate food.

  • Staphylococcal poisoning

    • Cause: staphylococcus aureus​ infection

    • Effects(symptoms): nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dehydration.

    • Common Foods: bakery foods, poultry, and cream-related products.

  • Bacillus cereus poisoning

    • Cause: bacillus cereus infection​

    • Effects(symptoms): abdominal pain or diarrhea

    • Common Foods: rice, sauce, and soup

  • Botulism​

    • Cause: Clostridium botulinum​infection

    • Effects(symptoms): nausea, vomiting, headache, and persistent constipation followed by blurred vision

    • Common Foods: fermented or smoked marine products

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2. FOOD BORNE INFECTIONS

Food Borne Infection is the spread of pathogenic microbes in our body tissues via inner intestine after intake of this type of pathogen.

  • Salmonellosis (Typhoid)

    • Cause: Salmonella bacteria infected into lymphatic system which lead to salmonellosis. ​

    • Effects(symptoms): nausea, diarrhea, and fever

    • Common Foods: eggs and milk

  • Shigellosis (Bacillary dysentery)

    • Cause: bacteria of genus Shigella

    • Effects(symptoms):  bloody diarrhea, fever nausea, and cramps

    • Common Foods: raw vegetables, salad, and poultry

  • Vibrio para haemoliticus gastroenteritis

    • Cause: Consuming raw or undercooked seafood whgich contribute to gastroenteritis inflamation in the intestines.

    • Effects(symptoms):  abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea

    • Common Foods: fish, shellfish, crab, and shrimp

  • Entero pathogenic Escherichia coli diarrhoea

    • Cause: Contaminated food with E. coli.

    • Effects(symptoms): nausea vomiting diarrhea abdominal pain cramps.

    • Common Foods: any contaminated food or drinks with undigested animal waste.

  • Hepatitis A

    • Cause: infection hepatitis from contaminated water or food with animal feces.

    • Effects(symptoms): fever, abdominal pain, headache, and jaundice

    • Common Foods: poultry, meat, and dairy products

  • Shellfish poisoning

    • ​Cause: accumulation of toxins from a dino- flagellate algae Gonyaulax catenella inside shellfish.​​​
    • Effects(symptoms): fever, abdominal pain, headache, and jaundice

    • Common Foods: oysters, mussels and, clams

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3. OTHER TOXIC INFECTIONS

Apart from the former categories, the third food borne infection is any consumption that contain enterotoxigenic bacteria which will grow in our intestine and produce enterotoxins to cause many symptoms.

  • Cholera

    • Cause:  Vibrio cholera bacterium​

    • Effects(symptoms): abrupt onset of vomiting and watery diarrhea and, dehydration​​

    • Common Food(s): seafood

  • Listeriosis

    • Cause:  L. monocytogenes

    • Effects(symptoms): headache, stiff neck, confusion or changes in alertness, loss of balance, and Convulsions

    • Common Foods: seafood, milk, and dairy products

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2. POOR DIET

1. OBESITY

Obesity is the excess of energy of intake level due to inadequate level of physical inactivity and excess energy of diet such ad sugar and fats.

  • Overweight (not obese): BMI = 25.0 - 29.9.

  • Class 1 (low-risk) obesity: BMI = 30.0 - 34.9.

  • Class 2 (moderate-risk): obesity: BMI = 35.0 - 39.9.

  • Class 3 (high-risk) obesity: BMI ≥ 40.0.

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2. DIABETES

Diabetes refers to metabolic disorders that contain a high level of blood sugar from insulin-related problems.

  • Types 1 diabetes

    • High level of blood sugar due to a deprivation of insulin produced from the pancreas. ​

  • Types 2 diabetes (90% of diabetes)

    • High level of blood sugar due to an ineffective use of insulin. ​​

  • Gestational diabetes (First time of pregnancy)

    • Similar to types 2 diabetes except that Gestational diabetes involves in an insufficient insulin secretion and responsiveness.

3. CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

Cardiovascular diseases is mainly attributed by the lack of physical activity and excessive diet that contribute to heart attack or stroke.

  • Abnormal heart rhythms or arrhythmias

  • Aorta disease and Marfan syndrome

  • Congenital heart disease

  • Coronary artery disease (narrowing of the arteries)

  • Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism

  • Heart attack

  • Heart failure

  • Heart muscle disease

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4. ANEMIA

Anemia is the insufficient of healthy red blood cell from inadequate nutrients, especially iron, folate, or vitamin B-12, which they are essential to carry oxygen to your body's tissues.

  •  Iron-deficiency anemia

    • Lack of iron content, as it vital in producing hemoglobin which are used for carrying oxygen.​

    • Food rich in iron and vitamin C

  • Pernicious anemia

    • Lack of Vitamin B12 and folate​ 

    • Foods rich in vitamin B12, such meat; fish; eggs; dairy products; and breads, and cereals.

  • Aplastic anemia (vary cases)

    • Lower blood cells than RBCs​

  • Hemo- lytic anemia (vary cases)

    • Lack of RBCs replacement ​

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5. CANCER

Apart from tobacco, cancer is also caused by poor diet, obesity, and physical inactive.

  • Sugar and Refined Carbs

    •  With a high level of ​insulin and blood sugar that could cause inflation, they can generate abnormal cells in stomach and breast.

  • Processed and red meat

    • Categorized as a carcinogen, a substance causing cancer, ​which too much could lead to colorectal cancer.

  • Overcooked Food: These kind of cooking, such as frying and grilling,contain heterocyclic amines (HA) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) which are unhealthy substances that will inflame your body tissue. 

6. OSTEOPOROSIS

Osteoporosis or bone fractures are weak or low dense bones which caused by an inadequate intake of vitamin D(sunlight) and calcium.

  • Primary osteoporosis (common and normal): pathological difference between bones resorption and formation lead to a too low density of bone as humans getting older. 

  • Secondary osteoporosis is a bone loss from specific clinical disorders.

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7. DENTAL DISEASE

 Dental disease or tooth decay are destruction of fluoride from sugary and acidic food.

  • Toothache

  • Clicking of the jaw cracked or broken teeth chronic

  • Bad breath

  • High sensitivity to hot and cold food

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References:

1. “Foodborne Germs and Illnesses.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 18 Mar. 2020, www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/foodborne-germs.html.

2.https://vikaspedia.in/health/nutrition/food-borne-diseases-or-food-poisoning

3. “Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases Report of the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation.” World Health Organization, World Health Organization, 6 Oct. 2014, www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/trs916/summary/en/.